James Odell

PUBLICATIONS Books
Agent Papers and Presentations
Articles on Complex Systems and Agents
Agent UML
Articles on Object Orientation
References for Periodicals

Agent & Ontology Papers & Presentations

"Agent Technology - An Overview," paper/booklet, James Odell, paper, 2011.
This 200-page paper is expected to provide readers at all levels (no prerequisites needed) with an understanding of what agents are, how they can be employed to build systems that can dynamically manage complex resources. Additionally, the paper is intended for those who are working in areas that might involve agent technology.  The purpose here is to encourage synchronization of those areas employing agents and agent-based technology. <paper/booklet (9.4MB)

"Ontology," James Odell, paper, 2011.
The idea of ontology-driven, more intelligent information systems is in the early stages of becoming a practical reality. Semantic specifications play a key role in enhancing the potential for data sharing and reuse across the World Wide Web. This paper provides and introduction to the topic for those who have some entity or class modeling experience
<paper download>

"Ontological Behavior Modeling," Conrad Back and James Odell, Journal of Object Technology, vol. 10, 2011, pp 3:1-36, 2011.
This article gives an example of improving the effectiveness of behavior modeling languages using ontological techniques. The techniques are applied to behaviors in the Unified Modeling Language (UML), using the logical meanings for classification introduced in UML 2. The article suggests unifying UML’s three kinds of behavior languages around the abstract syntax and semantics of composite structure, UML’s model for capturing interconnection of parts of classes. <paper download>

"Agent Technology and SOA," paper, CSC, 2010.
Agent technology will enable us to create and support a whole class of IT applications and approaches that we previously could not have developed. For this reason, two new SOA standards have emerged: OMG’s SoaML and OASIS’ Reference Architecture—both explicitly including the use of agents technology for SOA systems. < paper download>

"Agent Technology: What is it and why do we care?" James Odell, Enterprise Architecture, 10(3), executive report, Cutter Consortium, Arlington, MA, pp 1-25, 2007.
Agent technology is now necessary to reduce costs, to improve efficiency and effectiveness, and to support the requirements of individuals, groups, companies, and universities as they collaborate globally.  More importantly, it will enable us to create and support a whole class of IT applications and approaches that we previously could not have developed.  This Executive Report discusses what agent technology is as well as how and where it is being used in industry, today. < paper download>

"Agents: A Necessary Ingredient in Today’s Highly Collaborative World," James Odell, Business Technology Trends & Impacts, Council Opinion, Volume 8, Number 1, Cutter Consortium, 2007.
Agent technology is now necessary to reduce costs, to improve efficiency and effectiveness, and to support the requirements of individuals, groups, companies, and universities as they collaborate globally.  More importantly, it will enable us to create and support a whole class of IT applications and approaches that we previously could not have developed. < paper download 338KB PDF file>

"Environment as a First-Class Abstraction in Multiagent Systems," Danny Weyns, Andrea Omicini, and James Odell, Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, 14(1), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 5-30, 2007.
In this paper, we put forward the environment as an explicit part of multiagent systems. We give a definition of the environment that states that the environment is a first-order abstraction in multiagent systems with a dual role: (1) the environment provides the surrounding conditions for agents to exists, which implies that the environment is an essential part of every multiagent system, and (2) the environment provides an exploitable design abstraction to build multiagent system applications. < paper download 183KB PDF file>

"UML 2.0 and agents: how to build agent-based systems with the new UML standard" Bernhard Bauer and James Odell, Journal of Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence Volume 18, Issue 2 , March 2005, Pages 141-157.
Unified Modeling Language (UML 2.0) is the upcoming standard of the Object Management Group for specifying object-oriented software systems. This paper shows how UML 2.0 can be applied for the specification of agent-based systems. < presentation download 8.3MB PDF file>

"Agent UML: Too Radical or not Radical Enough" J. Odell, Keynote to Net.Object.Days, Erfurt, Germany, 30 September 2004. Progress report on AUML.
< presentation download 8.3MB PDF file>

"A Metamodel for Agents, Roles, and Groups," James Odell, Marian Nodine, and Renato Levy, Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) V, James Odell, P. Giorgini, Jörg Müller, eds., Lecture Notes on Computer Science volume LNCS 3382, Springer, Berlin, 2005. This paper contains a proposed superstructure specification that defines the user-level constructs required to model agents, their roles and their groups based on the work with FIPA. These modeling constructs provide the basic foundational elements required in multi-agent systems to foster dynamic group formation and operation.  As agent systems scale beyond the point where an individual organization can track and control their behavior, the use of these concepts within the society will facilitate dynamic, controlled, task-oriented group formation.  This in turn will enhance the predictability, reliability and stability of the agent system as a whole, as well as facilitating the analysis of both group and system behavior. < paper download 183KB PDF file>

"Agent UML: What is It and Why Do I Care," J. Odell, presentation to Net.ObjectDays 2003 and ER 2003. This presentation discusses the issues involved in using the OMG’s UML 2.0 as a possible starting point. However, we do not want to be restricted by UML; we only want to capitalize on it where we can. The general philosophy, then, is: When it makes sense to reuse portions of UML, then do it; when it doesn't make sense to use UML, use something else or create something new. This presentation discussed the work already underway and the work that still needs to be addressed. < paper download 576KB PDF file>

"Temporal Aspects of Dynamic Role Assignment," James Odell, H. Van Dyke Parunak, Sven Breuckner, Mitch Fleischer, and Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) IV, P. Giorgini, Jörg Müller, James Odell, eds., Lecture Notes on Computer Science volume 2935, Springer, Berlin, 2004. An important characteristic of real-world agent systems is that the roles played by an agent may change over time. These changes can be of several different kinds. We describe an illustrative application where such role changes are important, analyze and classify the various kinds of role changes over time that may occur, and show how this analysis is useful in developing a more formal description of the application. <paper download 536 PDF file>

"A Preliminary Taxonomy of Multi-Agent Interaction," H. Van Dyke Parunak, Sven Breuckner, and John Sauter, Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) IV, P. Giorgini, Jörg Müller, James Odell, eds., Lecture Notes on Computer Science volume 2935, Springer, Berlin, 2004. Discussions of agent interactions frequently characterize behavior as "coherent," "collaborative," "cooperative," "competitive," or "coordinated." We propose a series of formal distinctions among these terms and several others. We argue that all of these are specializations of the more foundational category of correlation, which can be measured by the joint information of a system. We also propose congruence as a category orthogonal to the others, reflecting the degree to which correlation and its specializations satisfy user requirements. Then we explore the degree to which lack of correlation can arise purposefully, and show the need to use formal stochasticity in cases where such lack of correlation is truly necessary (such as in stochastic search). <paper download 361KB PDF file>

"The Role of Roles in Designing Effective Agent Organizations," James Odell, H. Van Dyke Parunak, and Mitch Fleischer, Software Engineering for Large-Scale Multi-Agent Systems, Garcia, A.; Lucena, C.; Zambonelli, F.; Omicini, A.; Castro, J. (eds.), Lecture Notes on Computer Science volume 2603, Springer, Berlin, 2003, pp 27-38. Agent-based systems are no longer contained within the boundaries of a single, small agent organization. To meet the demands of large-scale system implementations, agent organizations must deal with environmental forces, interact with other agent organizations, and know how they affect individual agents. In this paper, we look to social and organizational systems theory as a source of inspiration. Many of these techniques have been successful for a hundreds and thousands of years. We believe that the designers of agent-based systems can learn a great deal from organization designers. In the first of a series, this paper examines the notion of role and its implications on how agents might behave in group settings. <paper download 193KB PDF file>

"Co-X: Defining what Agents Do Together," H. Van Dyke Parunak, Sven Breuckner, Mitch Fleischer, and James Odell, Proceedings of the AAMAS 2002 Workshop on Teamwork and Coalition Formation, Onn Shehory, Thomas R. Ioerger, Julita Vassileva, John Yen, eds., Bologna, 2002. (Superceded by the paper above titled, "A Preliminary Taxonomy of Multi-Agent Interaction.")

"Modeling Agents and their Environment," James Odell, H. Van Dyke Parunak, Mitch Fleischer, and Sven Breuckner, Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) III, F. Giunchiglia, James Odell, Gerhard Weiss, eds., Lecture Notes on Computer Science volume 2585, Springer, Berlin, 2002, pp 16-31. Without an environment, an agent is effectively useless. Cut off from the rest of its world, the agent can neither sense nor act. An environment provides the conditions under which an entity (agent or object) can exist. It defines the properties of the world in which an agent will function. Designing effective agents requires careful consideration of both the physical and communicational aspects of their environment. <paper download 1176KB PDF file; presentation 1121KB zipped PDF file>

"Representing Social Structures in UML," Parunak, H.V.D. and J. Odell, Agent-Oriented Software Engineering II, M. Wooldridge, G. Weiss, and P. Ciancarini, eds. Lecture Notes on Computer Science volume 2222, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 1-16, 2002. Sociological analogies are proving fruitful models for agent-oriented constructions, while sociologists increasingly use agents as a modeling tool for studying social systems. We combine several existing organizational models for agents, including AALAADIN, dependency theory, interaction protocols, and holonics, in a general theoretical framework, and show how UML can be applied and extended to capture constructions in that framework. < paper download 198KB PDF file>

"Objects and Agents Compared," Journal of Object Technology, Vol 1, Number 1, May, 2002. Just how different are objects and agents? Some developers consider agents to be objects, but with more bells and whistles. This approach tends to define agents beginning with the phrase, "An agent is an object that ..."—where the definers add their favorite discriminating features. Then, there are those who see agents and objects as different even though they share many things in common. One way I find useful in describing the difference between objects and agents is by considering the evolution of programming approaches. http://www.jot.fm/issues/issue_2002_05/column4

"Update: Agent Standardization Efforts" (Executive Update, Volume 4, Number 17, 2001, Cutter Consortium, Arlington, MA, 2000.) A surge of recent activity in software agents has resulted in about 50 projects in Europe alone. [Sierra,2000] Application areas include electronic commerce (CASBA and AIMedia), mobile agents (the Climate cluster of 12 projects), learning assistant agents (NIMIS), wearable assistant agents (Comris), geographical information systems (Agent), and manufacturing management (Mascada and Terpsichore). These activities include a combination of stand-alone projects and more coordinated initiatives such as the Climate cluster in mobile agents and the recently launched Universal Information Ecosystems initiative, an interdisciplinary research program aimed at exploring new technologies and solutions to take full advantage of an infrastructure with a trillion or more "infohabitants." This article presents a selection of these standardization efforts.
< HTML presentation >< paper download 140KB PDF file>

"Agents (Part 1): Technology and Usage," Executive Report, Volume 3, Number 4, Cutter Consortium, Arlington, MA, 2000. This executive report provides a 29-page overview of agents: what they are, how they are used, and the kind of technology that is currently considered for their implementation and support. <To download, see Part 2 (below)>

"Agents (Part 2): Complex Systems," Executive Report, Volume 3, Number 6, Cutter Consortium, Arlington, MA, 2000. This is a continuation of V3N4. It primarily discusses how the complex adaptive systems (or simply, complex systems) approach is applicable to developing multiagent applications. In particular, it discusses topics such as adaptation, emergence, "edge-of-chaos" phenomena, and the difference between agents and objects.
<Both Parts 1 & 2 download 589KB ZIP file>

"Agent Technology Green Paper," Version 1.0, James Odell ed., Agent Working Group OMG Document ec/2000-08-01. Contains the issues and concerns for agent technology by the OMG's Agent Working Group <download 374KB PDF file>

"Engineering Artifacts for Multi-Agent Systems," a one-hour presentation to the MAAMAW 99 conference in Madrid, Spain. It describes how UML can be used and extended to model agent systems. The presentation that can be downloaded here is an updated version of the original. <download 890KB PDF file>

AUML Papers and Presentations  (AUML website)       

"A Metamodel for Agents, Roles, and Groups," James Odell, Marian Nodine, and Renato Levy, Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) IV, James Odell, P. Giorgini, Jörg Müller, eds., Lecture Notes on Computer Science volume (forthcoming), Springer, Berlin, 2005. This paper contains a proposed superstructure specification that defines the user-level constructs required to model agents, their roles and their groups based on the work with FIPA. These modeling constructs provide the basic foundational elements required in multi-agent systems to foster dynamic group formation and operation.  As agent systems scale beyond the point where an individual organization can track and control their behavior, the use of these concepts within the society will facilitate dynamic, controlled, task-oriented group formation.  This in turn will enhance the predictability, reliability and stability of the agent system as a whole, as well as facilitating the analysis of both group and system behavior. < paper download 183KB PDF file>

"Agent UML: What is It and Why Do I Care," J. Odell, presentation to Net.ObjectDays 2003 and ER 2003. This presentation discusses the issues involved in using the OMG’s UML 2.0 as a possible starting point. However, we do not want to be restricted by UML; we only want to capitalize on it where we can. The general philosophy, then, is: When it makes sense to reuse portions of UML, then do it; when it doesn't make sense to use UML, use something else or create something new. This presentation discussed the work already underway and the work that still needs to be addressed. < paper download 576KB PDF file>

"Representing Social Structures in UML," H. Van Dyke Parunak and James Odell, Agent-Oriented Software Engineering Workshop II, Michael Wooldridge, Paolo Ciancarini, and Gerhard Weiss, eds., Springer, Berlin, 2002, pp. 1-16. (Lecture Notes on Computer Science -LNCS 2222; from the Second International Workshop, AOSE 2001, Montral, Canada, May 2001, held at the Agents 2001 conference, Montreal, Canada) This paper combines several existing organizational models for agents, including AALAADIN, dependency theory, interaction protocols, and holonics, in a general theoretical framework, and shows how UML can be applied and extended to capture constructions in that framework.
< paper download 145KB PDF file> < AOSE presentation download 544KB PDF file>

"Specifying Agent Interactions using UML," James Odell, presentation to FIPA, July 2000. A 20-minute presentation to the July 2000 meeting of FIPA. It mostly covers the material covered in the paper, below, entitled "Extending UML for Agents."<download 364KB PDF file>

"Extending UML for Agents," James Odell, H. Van Dyke Parunak, Bernhard Bauer, Proc. of the Agent-Oriented Information Systems Workshop at the 17th National conference on Artificial Intelligence, Gerd Wagner, Yves Lesperance, and Eric Yu eds., Austin, TX, pp. 3-17accepted paper, AOIS Worshop at AAAI 2000. This paper describes how UML can be used and extended to model agent systems. It continues the work described in the paper, below, entitled "Representing Agent Interaction Protocols in UML."<download 338KB PDF file>

"Agent UML: A Formalism for Specifying Multiagent Interaction," Bernhard Bauer, Jörg P. Müller, James Odell, Agent-Oriented Software Engineering, Paolo Ciancarini and Michael Wooldridge eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 91-103, 2001. (Held at the 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ISCE)). Based on the FIPA work described in the FIPA work submitted in "Extending UML for the Specification of Agent Interaction Protcol," below. <download 132KB PDF file>>

"Representing Agent Interaction Protocols in UML," James Odell, H. Van Dyke Parunak, Bernhard Bauer, Agent-Oriented Software Engineering, Paolo Ciancarini and Michael Wooldridge eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 121–140, 2001. (Held at the 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ISCE)). Gaining wide acceptance for the use of agents in industry requires both relating it to the nearest antecedent technology (object-oriented software development) and using artifacts to support the development environment throughout the full system lifecycle. We address both of these requirements using AUML, the Agent UML (Unified Modeling Language)—a set of UML idioms and extensions. This paper illustrates the approach by presenting a three-layer AUML representation for agent interaction protocols: templates and packages to represent the protocol as a whole; sequence and collaboration diagrams to capture inter-agent dynamics; and activity diagrams and state charts to capture both intra-agent and inter-agent dynamics. < download 246KB PDF file>
Agent-Oriented Software Engineering presentation <download 400KB PDF file>

"Suggested UML Extensions for Agents," James Odell and Conrad Bock (Response to the OMG Analysis and Design Task Force UML RTF 2.0 Request for Information) It describes how UML can be used and extended to model agent systems (based on the "Representing Agent Interaction Protocols in UML," below. (<download 373KB PDF file>

"Extending UML for the Specification of Agent Interaction Protcol," FIPA response to the OMG Analysis and Design Task Force UML RTF 2.0 Request for Information FIPA's Technical Committee C (TC C) produce this document that describes in detail how UML can be used and extended to model agent interaction protocols. <download 373KB PDF file>

Articles on Complex Systems and Agents

"Agents (Part 2): Complex Systems," Executive Report, Volume 3, Number 6, Cutter Consortium, Arlington, MA, 2000. This is a continuation of V3N4. It primarily discusses how the complex adaptive systems (or simply, complex systems) approach is applicable to developing multiagent applications. In particular, it discusses topics such as adaptation, emergence, "edge-of-chaos" phenomena, and the difference between agents and objects. <Parts 1 & 2 download 589KB ZIP file>

"Agents (Part 1): Technology and Usage," Executive Report, Volume 3, Number 4, Cutter Consortium, Arlington, MA, 2000. This executive report provides a 29-page overview of agents: what they are, how they are used, and the kind of technology that is currently considered for their implementation and support. <Parts 1 & 2 download 589KB ZIP file>

"Considerations for Agent-Based Technology," Distributed Computing, August, 1999. Within the OMG, an Agent Working Group was established to provide a forum for building industry consensus and convergence around agent technology development. One of this group's first efforts is identifying the key features of agent technology. This column presents excerpts from the group's efforts—in particular, the areas which the work group considered vital to the success of developing and deploying agent-based systems. <download 151KB PDF file> Updated copy.

"Agent-Based Manufacturing: Part II," Distributed Computing, July, 1999, David Greenstein and James Odell. Agent-based systems can borrow many concepts from such natural systems as ant colonies, wolf packs, and bird flocks. Even human systems, such as taxicab dispatching, auction houses, peace negotiations, and market economies, have highlighted parallels between natural systems and agent-based systems. In particular, manufacturing systems are one such area that can benefit from the metaphors of natural systems. When designed in this way, manufacturing systems become as flexible, dynamic, and adaptive as systems in the natural world. <download 187KB PDF file>

"Agent-Based Manufacturing: Part I," Distributed Computing, May, 1999, pp. 21–31, James Odell and David Greenstein. A major automotive company is building an agent-based manufacturing system. Here, the agents not only adapt to their environment but can also evolve by learning from the environment. This new architecture—the Agile Manufacturing Information System (AMIS)—prepares manufacturing enterprises for the increasingly complex marketplace and enables them to respond rapidly to change. <download 183KB PDF file> Final copy.

"Agents: Between Order and Chaos," Distributed Computing, January, 1999, pp. 51–53. Nature has moments both of order and chaos. Interestingly enough, those forms that are considered most fit actually reside someplace in between. This phenomenon applies to business and software agents, as well. <download 244KB PDF file>

"Agents and Emergence," Distributed Computing, October, 1998, pp. 45–50 and Journal of Object-Oriented Programming (JOOP), February, 2000. Emergence is the existence of a coherent pattern that arises out of interactions among simpler objects. It is both an interesting and a vitally important property of complex adaptive systems. Every system developer should be aware of the phenomenon and its effect on autonomous agent systems. <download 108KB PDF file>

"Designing Agents: Using Life as a Metaphor," Distributed Computing, July, 1998, pp. 51–56. There are many compelling reasons to use agents to develop software—particularly distributed software. The metaphor of living systems suggests many mechanisms for designing systems of autonomous agents. For example, living systems scale up. <download 118KB PDF file>

"Agents and Beyond: A Flock is Not a Bird," Distributed Computing, April, 1998, pp. 52–54. An introduction to agents and complex systems (or complex adaptive systems), particularly for the software developer. <download 90KB PDF file>


Books

Business Process Management: The Next Wave, Jim Sinur, James Odell, and Peter Fingar, MK Press, Tampa, Florida, 2013. Intelligent BPM/S using agent-based technology.

Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) V, James Odell, P. Giorgini, Jörg Müller, eds., Lecture Notes on Computer Science volume 3382, Springer, Berlin, 2005. The revised selected papers from the 5th International Workshop of AOSE 2004 at AAMAS '04 in New York, July 2004.

Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) IV, P. Giorgini, Jörg Müller, James Odell, eds., Lecture Notes on Computer Science volume 2935, Springer, Berlin, 2004. The revised selected papers from the 4th International Workshop of AOSE 2003 at AAMAS '03 in Melbourne, Australia, July 2003.

Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) III, Fausto Giunchiglia, James Odell, Gerhard Weiss, eds., Lecture Notes on Computer Science volume 2585, Springer, Berlin, 2003. The revised papers from the 4th International Workshop of AOSE 2002 at AAMAS '03 in Bologna, Italy July 2002.

Object-Oriented Methods: A Foundation: UML Edition, (co-authored with James Martin) Prentice-Hall, 1998. This is the second edition to the original 1994 version. It presents the fundamental concepts underlying the object-oriented approach in a clear, concise manner using the Unified Modeling Language (UML). It also introduces more advanced structures—including constraints, business rules, meta-modeling, power types, and dynamic and multiple classification. Appendix D presents a formalization of OO-analysis constructs.

Object-Oriented Methods: Pragmatic Considerations, Prentice-Hall, 1995. If the Foundation volume describes the "what" of OO, this volume describes the "how." It begins by describing how methodologies are best constructed. The volume also contains new ways of designing systems using OO and non-OO implementations. The last 140 pages provide a full life-cycle methodology for those who want someplace to start when developing their own methods. (Since this volume was produced prior to UML, the notation is not UML compliant.)

Advanced Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML, Cambridge University Press, 1998. SIGS Publications took 22 of my articles from JOOP (Journal of Object-Oriented Programming), Object Magazine, and ROAD (Report on Analysis and Design) to produce this volume. The articles contained in this book are indicated by an "*" below. Before publication, all of the diagrams and terminology were changed to conform to UML standards. (Note: a good number of these articles were further improved and included the Foundation volume, above.)

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, (co-authored with James Martin) Prentice-Hall, 1992. After Jim and I published this first book, we decided that the material needed to be expanded into three volumes. Foundations and Pragmatic Considerations were the second and third of these volumes. The first, entitled Principles of Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (1993), was published under Jim Martin’s name.


Articles on Object Orientation

(email for copies (some are still available)

"A More Complete Model of Relations and their Implications: Aggregation," Conrad Bock and James Odell, Journal of OO Programming, September, 1998, pp. 68–85.

"A More Complete Model of Relations and their Implications: Roles," Conrad Bock and James Odell, Journal of OO Programming, May, 1998, pp. 51–54.

"UML is now a Standard," Distributed Computing, January/February, 1998, pp. 49–51.

"A More Complete Model of Relations and their Implications: Mappings," Conrad Bock and James Odell, Journal of OO Programming, October, 1997, pp. 28–30.

"Toward a Formalization of OO Analysis," James Odell and Guus Ramackers, Journal of OO Programming, July, 1997, pp. 64–68.*

"A More Complete Model of Relations and their Implications," Conrad Bock and James Odell, Journal of OO Programming, June, 1997, pp. 38–40.

"Standardization for OA&D?," Distributed Object Computing, February, 1997, pp. 48–52.

"User Workshop Techniques," Report on Analysis and Design, July, 1996.*

"A User-level Model of Aggregation," Conrad Bock and James Odell, Report on Analysis and Design, May, 1996.

"Object-Oriented Methodologies," Report on Analysis and Design, January, 1996.*

"Method Engineering," Report on Analysis and Design, November, 1995.*

"From Analysis to Design," (Parts I, II, and III), James Odell and Martin Fowler, Report on Analysis and Design, March, May, and September, 1995.*

"Using Rules with Diagrams," Object Magazine, February, 1995.*

"Business Rules," Object Magazine, January, 1995.*

"Approaches to Finite-State Machine Modeling," Journal of OO Programming, January, 1995.*

"A Foundation for Aggregation," Conrad Bock and James Odell, Journal of OO Programming, October, 1994.*

"Events and their Specification," Journal of OO Programming, July/August, 1994.*

"Power Types," Journal of OO Programming, May, 1994.*

"Six Kinds of Aggregation," Journal of OO Programming, January, 1994.*

"Specifying Structural Constraints," Journal of OO Programming, October, 1993.*

"Using Business Rules with Diagrams," Journal of OO Programming, July/August, 1993.

"Specifying Requirements using Rules," Journal of OO Programming, May, 1993.

"Managing Object Complexity," (Parts I and II), Journal of OO Programming, September and October, 1992.*

"Modeling Objects Using Binary vs. Entity-Relationship Approaches," Journal of OO Programming, June, 1992.*

"What is Object State?" Journal of OO Programming, May, 1992.*

"Object Types as Objects–and Vice Versa," Journal of OO Programming, February, 1992.*

"Dynamic and Multiple Classification," Journal of OO Programming, January, 1992.*

"Object Oriented Analysis," Journal of OO Programming Focus On Analysis and Design, 1991.

"Object Orientation and Its Software Implementation," Database Newsletter, March, 1990.

Introduction to Object-Oriented Techniques, Coopers & Lybrand, 1988.

Information Engineering Approach to Data Modeling, Proc. of Data Modeling, 1986.

Data Analysis, KnowledgeWare, 1986.

Information Strategy Planning, KnowledgeWare, 1983.


References for Periodicals

JOOP (Journal of Object-Oriented Programming), Object Magazine, ROAD (Report on Analysis and Design), Distributed Object Computing, and Distributed Computing were all produced by SIGS Publications. However, over the past few years, they have all stopped publication.

The Journal of Object Technology (JOT) is a web-based journal at http://www.jot.fm. Richard Wiener, previously of JOOP, is the editor-in-chief

* These articles were improved and modified to be UML compliant for the book entitled Advanced Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML (referenced above).

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Last update: 9 January 2017